Rulers of Slave Dynasty

Rulers of Slave Dynasty List

SultanReign (CE)
Qutb-ud-din Aibak1206 – 1210
Aram Shah1210 – 1211
Shams-ud-Din Iltutmish1211 – 1236
Rukn-ud-din FiruzMay 1236 – Nov 1236
Razia Sultana1236 – 1 240
Muiz-ud-din Bahram1240 – 1242
Ala-ud-din Masud Shah1242 – 1246
Nasiruddin Mahmud1246 – 1266
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban1266 – 1287
Muiz ud din Qaiqabad1287 – 1290
Shams-ud-Din Kayumar Feb 1290 – June 1290

Rulers of Slave Dynasty History

Qutb-ud-din Aibak

Qutb-ud-din Aibak was the the first ruler and founder of Slave Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate in Indian subcontinent. He was a commander general in the army of Gurid king Muhammad Ghori. Aibak was the in-charge of Ghurid dynasty territories in Northern India.

When Muhammaed Ghauri died in 1206, he had no male heir and so as to his will, Qutb-ud-din was made the Sultan. And that’s how a slave rose to the position of emperor.

He ruled the former Ghurid territories in northern India. Aibak was a native Turkish, Sold into salivary as a child, he was purchased by a Qazi at Nishapur and later resold to Muhammed Ghouri.

Aibak established a full control over Northern Area of India and declare Lahore as his new capital. His title was Lakh Bakhsh.

During his reign, Aibak started the construction of famous world heritage Qutub Minar in Delhi, which was later completed by his slave Iltutmish.

He died by falling from his horse while playing chovgan (polo). He was buried in Lahore, Pakistan. The tomb of Aibak is in historical Anarkali bazar of Lahore.

Aram Shah

Aram Shah was the second ruler of slave dynasty of the Dehli sultante in Indian subcontinent. Turkic noble in Lahore appointed him as the successor of Aibak, but the nobles in other part of India opposed this ascension and rebel rebelled against him.

He was a weak ruler compared to his Predecessor. Later, within few months, Shah was defeated and dethroned by Iltutmish.

Shams-ud-Din Iltutmish

Iltutmish was the third ruler of Slave Dynasty of the Delhi sultanate. He was the first sovereign Muslim ruler in the history of Indian subcontinent. As a young boy, Iltutmish was sold into slavery and spent his early life in Ghazni and Bukhara. He was later purchased by the slave commander Qutub din Aibek in Delhi.

Iltutmish laid down the foundation of the truly independent Delhi Sultanate by freeing it from a subordinate to Ghazni.

During his reign, Delhi was first time made as the capital of India. He consolidate the entire North India from Bengal to its border in the present day Afghanistan.

He was a good commander, a skilled administrative who worked for the safety and beautification of the city of Delhi.

Iltutmish was the first Muslim ruler in India who received the investiture of khalifa from Abbasid Caliphate Mustansir Billah in 1229, Baghdad, Iraq.

It was Iltutmish who constituted a corps of forty loyal Turk slave and named it Turkan-i-Chihalgani.

In 1236, at the time of of his death, Delhi Sultanate was the largest independent kingdom in North India. He was burried in Qutub Minar, Delhi, India.

Rukn-ud-din Firuz

Ruknuddin Firuz was the fourth ruler of slave dynasty who ruled less then seven month in Delhi Sultanate. He was the son of the powerful and influencing Sultan Iltutmish.

However, he spent his time in pursuing pleasure. His misadministration led rebel against him and his mother. He was arrested and impression and his half sister Razia Sultana sat on the throne.

Razia Sultana

Razia Sultana was the first Sovereign women ruler of the South Asia with extreme talent, bravery and administration skills. She was the daughter of Sultan Shams-ud-Din Iltutmish. Razia was the fifth ruler of slave dynasty, the first and only female ruler of Delhi Sultanate.

Razia administrate Delhi when her father was busy in Gwalior campaign. Her father Iltutmish was greatly impressed by her performance and nominated her as his heir apparent after returning to Delhi.

Iltutmish nominated his daughter as heir apparent for the throne of delhi by overtaking his son Rukn-ud-din Firoz. 

After Iltutmish death, Razia ascension was challenged by a group of Turkic nobles as they were not appreciating of the fact that a woman is with the throne. In later, some of them joined her and other were defeated in the war against Sultana.

After throne, she became very popular as a good administrator and skilled warrior.

In a short span of period, She brought a lot of great reforms in the education and administration system. She established many schools to educate all the childrens and opened the libraries to share knowledge to the public.

She Married to Ikhtiyaruddin Altunia and tried to take back the Sultanate from her brother. Unfortunately, she was defeated and killed shortly after this.

Muiz ud-Din Bahram

Muiz ud-Din Bahram was the sixth ruler of slave dynasty. He was the son Iltutmish and half brother of Razia Sultana. During his reign Mangol attack Indus valley and besieged Lahore. However, the Sultan was weak to take the step against them.

During the unrest, the forty chiefs who appointed him as Sultan by dethroning Razia Sultana, killed Bahram in 1242.

Ala-ud-din Masud Shah

Ala-ud-Din Masud was the seventh ruler of the slave dynasty. He was the son of Rukn-ud-din Feruz, grand son of Iltutmish and nephew of Razia Sultana. He was appointed as the new ruler by chiefs after murdering his uncle Muiz ud-Din Bahram in the years of unrest.

However, he was a big puppet of chiefs and did not have the actual power and influence in the government. He was a big pleasure seeker with a fond of wine and Entertainment. He was removed from the power by chiefs and replaced him with Nasiruddin Mahmud as sultan.

Nasiruddin Mahmud

Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah was the eighth ruler of the Slave dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. He was the posthumous son of Nasiruddin Mahmud. His grand father Iltutmish give him the same because of intensive of his late son.

As a Sultan, Nasiruddin was very humble and religious person, spending most of his time in praying and copying the holy Quran. Surprisingly, he had no servant at home and his wife cooked the food for children.

However, it was his Father in law, Naib or deputy Ghiyas ud din Balban, who dealt with all state affairs.

Ghiyas-ud-Din Balban

Ghiyas ud din Balban was the ninth ruler of slave dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. He was regent of the last Shamsi ruler (Iltutmish family sultan), Nasiruddin Mahmud.

Baha-ud-din (his original name) was an Ilbari Turk, captured by Mangol as a young boy and taken to Ghazni. In Ghazni, he was sold to Khaja Jamal ud din of Basra . Later, Khawaja brought him and other slaves in Delhi, where all of them were purchased by Iltutmish.

Balban was the part of the famous group of 40 Turkic slaves of Iltutmish. He formed a very strong military power and brought some important reforms in civil administration.

Balban dissolved the the Chihalgani or the forty slave corps(king maker nobles) and restore the power of Sultan. He suppress many revolts, conquest the Bengal and save the city of Delhi from crimes and revolts.

In slave dynasty, he was the first one who keep the Ulema (religious scholar) away from political affairs and declare sultan as the vicegerent of God.

Muiz-ud-Din Qaiqabad

Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad was the 10th rule of Slave Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate in Northern India. He was the son Bughra khan and grandson of famous sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Balban.

During a war against Mangol, Balban eldest son Muhammed was Martyred in 1286. His younger son Bughra khan, the king of independent Bengal, was not interested in Delhi throne.

However, Balban nominated his grandson, kay khusroe, the son of Muhammaded to be his successor. After his death, Fakhr-ud-Din, the kotwal of Delhi, aside the nomination of Balban and chose Muiz-ud-Din Qaiqabad as the successor and Sultan of Delhi.

Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad was pleasure pursuing and indulged in women and wine. After four your of his reign, he was murdered by a Khilji noble in 1290.

Shams-ud-Din Kayumar

Shamsuddin Kayumars was the last ruler of Slave Dynasty. He was the son of Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad. Kayumar was declared Sulthan at the age of three, when his father was murdered by a Khilji Noble.

However, Kayumar guardian Jalal-al-Din Khilji, eventually dethroned him within few months and declared himself the Sultan of Delhi. This bring an end to the Slave dynasty of India in 1290.

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