Mughal Empire MCQs

Babur

  • Reign (1526-1530).
  • Born as Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530).
  • Babur was the founder and first Emperor of the great Mughal dynasty in India.
  • Babur came to India originally from Fergana
  • Babur was the first ruler of Mughal dynasty in India
  • The Mughal Empire was founded in India by Babur in 1526
  • Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi(Last Sultan of Dehli) at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 AD and founded the Mughal Empire.
  • Babur was succeeded to the Mughal throne by his son Humayun.
  • Babur originally invaded northern part of India.
  • The dead body of Babur was first buried at Aaram Bagh, Agra which was later moved to Bagh-e-Babur,Kabul.
  • The Rajput General who bravely fought the Battle of Khanwaa before losing to Babur was Rana Sanga.
  • The Battle of Khanwa was fought in Bharatpur District of Rajasthan, on March 16, 1527.
  • Babur’s autobiography, called Tuzuk-i-Baburi or Baburnama.
  • Babur’s autobiography is written in the Chagatai language.

Humayun

  • Life Span: (6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556)
  • First Reign (26 December 1530 – 17 May 1540 )
  • 2nd Reign (22 February 1555 – 27 January 1556)
  • Born as Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Humayun was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire
  • In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father Babur to the throne of Delhi
  • At the time of his  Coronation: 29 December 1530, Agra,   Humyaoun was only 22 Years old.
  • Humayun lost Mughal territories to Sher Shah Suri at the battle of Kannauj on 17 May 1540.
  • He Regained his dynasty after 15 Year with help of Safavid Dynasty
  • At the Battle of Sirhind on 22 June 1555, Humayun defeated Sikandar Shah Suri and the Mughal Empire was re-established in India.
  • At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometers.

Akbar

  • Born: Amarkot Rajputana (Present Day Umerkot Sindh Pakistan (October 1542– 27 October 1605)
  • Reign     (11 February 1556 – 27 October 1605)
  • Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar was the third Mughal emperor
  • Akbar was enthroned in a garden at Kalanaur by Bairam Khan
  • Akbar Introduce Din-i-Ilahi 1582.
  • The only Hindu Courtier of Akbar who accepted Din-i-Ilahi was Birbal.
  • Ramayana was translated into Persian at Akbar’s court by Mulla Abdul Qadir Badayuni.
  • Akbar’s First Capital was Agra
  • After Akbar’s defeated Rajputanas of Chittor and Ranthambore, he shifted his capital from Agra to a new city which named ‘Fatehpur Sikri
  • Raja Todar Mal was the Finance Minister (Diwan-e-kul of the Mughal Empire during Akbar’s reign.
  • The Hindu ruler who was a contemporary of Akbar, and took the title of Vikramadityaa was Hemachandra (Hemu).
  • Hemu was captured and brought before Akbar by Shah Qulihan Mehran.
  • Buland Darwaza was built in 1572 A.D. by Mughal emperor Akbar to commemorate his victory over Gujarat.
  • In Akbar’s regime, head of the military was called the mir bakshi.
  • Abdul Fazal was one of the nawratnas at Akbar’s court. He wrote the famous ‘Akbamama’ which is the official history of Akbar’s reign.
  • Ibadat Khana was a meeting house built in 1575 CE by Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri to gather spiritual leaders of different religious basis so as to conduct a discussion on the wisdom of the respective religious leaders.
  • Miyan Tansen was appointed by Akbar as his Court Musician.
  • The original name of Tansen was Ramatanu Pande
  • Akbar’s daughter Meherun Nissa was in love with Tansen, he converted to Islam from Hinduism on the evening of his marriage with Akbar’s daughter.
  • Akbar defeat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya  in the 2nd battle of Panipat on November 5, 1556.
  • Akbar Teacher was Abdul Latif
  • The ancient city prayagraj was named to Allahabad by Mughal emperor Akbar

Salim (Jahangir) )

  • Life Span (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627)
  • Reign (3 November 1605 – 28 October 1627)
  • Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim imperial name Jahangir was the 4th Mughal Emperor in India.
  • Prince Salīm was the eldest son of the emperor Akbar.
  • The fictional story of his relationship with the Mughal courtesan, Anarkali, has been widely adapted into the art, literature and Indian Cinema’s.
  • Mughal painting reached a high level of elegance and richness during his reign.
  • Portuguese traders first came to India during the Mughal period.
  • During Jahangir’s reign did William Hawkins visit the Mughal court to secure a right to trade in Mughal ports.
  • Mano Bai later Shah Begum was a rajput princess and the first wife of Prince Salim Emperor Jahangir.
  • Jagat Gosaini a rajput prices was one of the earlier favorite wife of Salem
  • Nur Jahan was the twentieth wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. She occupies an important place in the history of Jahangir.
  • The Mughal Have been made immortal by their achievement in the field of Architectural
  • Jahangir is widely considered to have been a weak and incapable ruler.
  • The Tomb of Jahangir is in Shahdara, Lahore

Shah Jahan

  • Life Span (5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666)
  • Reign: 19 January 1628 –31 July 1658
  • Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram better known by his imperial name Shah Jahan was the fifth Mughal emperor.
  • Shah Jahan was the third and favourite son of Emperor Jahangir. Jahangir’s other sons were Khusraw, Pervez and Shaharyar.
  • The Birth Place of Shah Jehan is Lahore
  • The name of mother of Shah Jahan was Jagat Gosaini, the daughter of ruler of Jodhpur
  • Mumtaz Mahal was the beloved wife of Shah Jahan’s in memory of whom he had the consructed the famous Taj Mahal.
  • Mumtaz Mahal’s original name was Arjumand Banu Begum.
  • Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed the Taj Mahal, the Jama Masjid, the Red Fort, and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore.
  • Shah Jahan Constructed the Jama Masjid of Delhi
  • Mughal ruler Shah Jahan constructed the Red Fort in Delhi
  • Shah Jahan built the Sheshmahal, Anguri Bagh, Fish Mahal and the Moti Masjid at Agra Fort
  • Mughal ruler Shah Jahan had constructed the Peacock Throne, Naubat Khan, Rang Mahal in the Red Fort of Delhi
  • Shalimar Bagh Lahore was built by Shah Jahan
  • the name of the world most expensive diamond in the Peacock Throne is Kohe nor
  • Shah Jahan reign is called the golden age of the Mughal period
  • Shah Jahan buried Next to your beloved Begum Mumtaz Mahal in Agra Taj Mahal
  • Shah Jahan Mosque was built by Shah Jahan in Thata Sindh Pakistan
  • The capital of mughal empire was changed from Agra to Delhi by Shah Jahan in the year 1638.

Aurangzeb:

  • Life Span (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707)
  • Reign (31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707)
  • Real name was Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad.
  • Aurangzeb was the sixth Mughal emperor.
  • Aurangzeb mother name was Mamtaz Mahal
  • During his reign the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent.
  • During his lifetime the Mughal Empire expanded 4 million square kilometers.
  • His annual revenue of $450 million (2,879,469,894 rupees) ten times more than that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France) in 1690.
  • Under his reign, India became the world’s largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, worth nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe.
  • Aurangzeb was Hafiz Quran and noted for his Piety.
  • Tegh Bahadur Singh 9th Sikh guru was executed by Aurangzeb in 1675 AD.
  • Guru Gobind Singh was the son of Tegh Bahadur Singh was the tenth last Guru of Sikh who founded Khalsa Panth.
  •  Under Gokal Jat leadership the Jats of Mathura revolted against Aurangzeb in 1669 AD.
  • Under Shivaji leadership Maratha established an arms against the religious policies of Aurangzeb
  • Chhatrsal established his independent rules in Bundelkhand in the reign of Aurangzeb
  • Aurangzeb anned the music in the court.
  • He reimposed Jazia tax in 1679 AD
  • Mughal ruler Aurangzeb abolished the Nauroz festival.
  • Aurangzeb issued secular decrees called Zawabits.
  • Aurangzeb is known as Zinda Pir.
  • Aurangzeb  changed the name of the city Mathura to Islamabad.
  • Moti Masjid in the Red Fort, Delhi was constructed by Aurangzeb.
  • Aurangzeb was the last powerful and successive Mughal emperor in India
  • Aurangzeb buried at Daulatabad.

Bahadur Shah I

  • Life Span ((14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712)
  • Reign (19 June 1707 – 27 February 1712)
  • Muhammad Mu’azzam  (Shah Alam) known by his Bahadur Shah Awal  was the seventh Mughal emperor of India.
  • He was the eldest son of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. 
  • Bahadu shah killed his brother Muhammad Azam and his son ali in the  Battle of Jajau and crowned as the Mughal emperor.
  • The decline of mughal emperor was started during his reign.
  • He made peace with the tenth Sikh Guru Gobind Singh and Hindu Raja’s at that time.
  • After ascending the throne, he converted to Shiaism and altered the khutba for the monarch said every Friday by giving the title wali to Ali. Because of this, the citizens of Lahore resented reciting the khutba
  • Bahadur Shah was a weak ruler and it was beyond his ability to hold the empire together.
  • He left behind four sons; three of them were killed in the bloody war of succession.
  • Shah was buried in the Moti Masjid at Mehrauli in Delhi. 

Jahandar Shah

  • Life span (9 May 1661 – 12 February 1713)
  • Reign :  (27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713)
  • Mirza Muhammad Mu’izz-ud-Din more commonly known as Jahandar Shah was the eight Mughal emperor in India.
  • He became emperor of India after killing his three brothers.
  • He and his brother, Azim-ush Shan both declared themselves emperor of India. Azim-us Shan was killed on 17 March 1712 in a battle of succession, after which Jahandar Shah became the Emperor of India.
  • Jahandar Shah won because he was supported by Zulfiqar Khan, the most powerful noble of the time.
  • During his reign, the administration was virtually in the hands of the exceptionally capable Zulfiqar Khan, who was his wazir.
  • Jahandar Shah led a playful life, and his court was always enlivened by dancing and entertainment girl.
  • His favorite wife Lal Kunwar was a dancing girl before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort.
  • Jahandar Shah was a weak and degenerate prince who was completely devoted to self pleasure.
  • He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar.
  • He fled to Delhi where he and his favorite wife was captured and handed over to the new Emperor.
  • He lived in confinement with his Lal Kunwar for a month until professional stranglers were sent to murder him.

Farrukhsiyar:

  • Farrukhsiyar (the son of Azim-ush-Shan) was the Mughal emperor from 1713 to 1719 after he murdered Jahandar Shah
  • Life Span (11 January 1713 – 28 February 1719)
  • Reign (27 February 1712 – 11 February 1713)
  • Farrukhsiyar defeated Jahandar Shah with the aid of the Sayyid brothers( Syed Abdullah Khan and Syed Husain Ali Khan Barha).
  • He was completely at the mercy of Syed Brothers. He was coward, cruel, undependable, and faithless.
  • He Killed Baba Banda Singh Bahadur a Sikh leader who captured some parts of the Punjab region.
  • British East India Company purchased duty free trade rights in all of Bengal for 3000 per year from Farrukhsiyar.
  • He was deposed by the Syed Brothers as he had tried to maintain his independence.

Rafi ud-Darajat

  • (1 December 1699 – 6 June 1719)
  • Reign     28 February – 6 June 1719
  • He succeeded Furrukhsiyar being proclaimed Badshah by the Syed Brothers.
  • Syed Brothers they took full advantage of his throne.
  • On His request his brother, Rafi ud-Daulah, was enthroned.
  • Rafi ud-Darajat died of Tuberculosis or was murdered at Agra, 6 June 1719.

Shah Jahan II

  • birth name Rafi ud-Daulah was the 11th Mughal emperor for a brief period in 1719.
  • Life span (1698 – 19 September 1719)
  • Reign: 6 June – 17 September 1719
  • Just like his younger brother, he was chosen by the kingmaker Sayyid brothers and wielded no power in practicality.
  • He was not allowed to meet any noble without the presence of one of the Sayyid brothers.
  • Shah Jahan was physically and mentally unfit to perform the duties of a ruler and died because tuberculosis.

Muhammad Shah

  • Born as Roshan Akhtar  was the 12th Mughal emperor from 1719 to 1748 in India.
  • He was the grandson of Bahadur Shah 1.
  • Life span (7 August 1702 – 16 April 1748
  • Reign: Decline of Power, Pursuit of Pleasure, Muhammad Shah, (1719-1748)
  • Popularly known as Muhammad Shah Rangeela often dressed in a lady’s long tunic (peshwaz) and pearl-embroidered shoes.
  • In the Morning Partridge and elephant fights were laid on for his pleasure. During the evenings, jugglers and mime artists performed in the front Emperor.

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